The history of beer has its roots in ancient times of the first civilization of the Middle East. The first mentions numbering ten thousand years, which makes beer probably the oldest type of alcohol. Through this abyss of time we can only assume about beer origins. It is clearly obviously that the culture of brewing is closely linked with the culture of agriculture. Obviously, beer appearance is fortuity. On the modern Syria and Iran territory, archaeologists discovered ancient large capacity pottery with a narrow neck, which, apparently used for grain keeping. Perhaps, sometimes the rainwater leaked in such vessels and seed began to grow, starting the fermentation process. There were mixed beer with spelled and barley In Babylon and the Babylonians were the first who consciously applied the malt germination. Beer mixed with various seasonings without hop using. Maybe it was unknown to ancient Babylon, and they just didn’t want it to use. So Babylonians and Sumerians beer had a sweet taste without the usual hop bitterness. Even in those days beer was a profitable good. Mesopotamian city-state of Ur commercial brewing centers produced beer professionally, for sale. Through archaeological research in southwestern Persia it became known the beer tendency 3500 years ago. Excavations of the city of Susa were found large spherical clay vessels underneath the buildings. These huge beer jugs covered with top ceramic plate with a hole in the middle.

Beer exhausted through the hole, or drank directly from it with a special tube. It is assumed that because of abundant foam at the surface which crushed malt suspended particles and sediment from the bottom of the vessels there was a way of beer drinking through a straw. Tube managed to pull the beer from the middle of the jar without solid particles. Numerous rock paintings of the era represent the process of drinking beer through a straw. Archaeologists found out that such beer containers mounted under the floor in wealthy homes for male assembly, which implies that men engaged the consumption of beer and brewing, and cooking is women’s business.

By the way, at the end of the last century,«Hoepfner» Karlsruhe Brewery (Germany) decided to experiment with using of historical heritage of ancient civilizations. For several months, they tested different combinations of grains and spices, and presented three beers types, prepared according to the recipes of ancient Sumerians and Babylonians. Reviews were the most diverse – from the most negative to the best. All tasters agreed on one thing – comparing to a modern beer, Sumerian and Babylonian beer is absolutely different drink. Beer “marked” in famous Hammurabi Code. It contains two paragraphs devoted to beer production and sale. The first paragraph establishes beer limit prices, directed against trader’s abuse. The reliable evidence of brewing developed discovered in ancient Egypt. Egyptians bought beer in Babylon, and gradually it gained their sympathy. Certainly, beer loses much of its merits after long heat way. Residents of the Nile valley had no choice but to learn the beer production and soon it became the national drink. Relationship between food, bread and beer already existed in the old days, one of examples is ancient Egyptian hieroglyph denoting meal, literally sounds like “bread and beer”, thus the close.

At times of the pharaohs, Egyptians perfectly mastered the art of cooking barley malt, and were able to brewing from other grains, but in different way than in Babylon. The invention of wheat beer they attributed to the god Osiris. Ancient Egyptian beer “hake» was sweet and strong. Beer also added with saffron, anise and other spices.

The oldest Egyptian beer recipes refer to 3500 BC. Egyptians painted special healing power to thick beer. In about 1250 BC Pharaoh Ramses II tried to limit the beer consumption but it was unnecessary because high Egyptian society traditionally prefer wine. Beer trade was forbidden, but ancient Egyptian anti-alcohol campaign hadn’t much success. People continued to drink beer.

The Brewers were so respected in Egypt.

Even though the fact that consumption of beer in ancient Egypt has always been great, none of the Pharaohs (even Ramses II) not occurred to impose taxes on beer production for thousands years, while production of other agricultural products properly taxed intolerable extortion. Beer spread from Egypt to Ethiopia, and then – to the Caucasus. Strong beer produced in the kingdom of Urartu (the territory of present Armenia) in the IX-XII centuries BC. Beer spread from Caucasus to Europe. The Scythians produced beer from barley, crushed rice, oats and millet.

Germans began to produce beer in the III century BC. Gauls produced drink, very similar to beer, in I century AD, which remained in northern France, Belgium and England until the end of the XIX century. It is known that the ancient Greeks and Romans drank mostly wine and almost knew nothing about beer. Moreover, they considered beer like barbarian’s drink. In the era of Aristotle, Greeks were aware of beer using by peoples of northern and central Europe.

By the II century AD German states became the brewing center in Europe, reported the first “foreign correspondent” Roman Tacitus, author of the famous treatise “On the Germans.” Brewing technology gradually spread to England and Scandinavia from German lands, and throughout the world thanks to the expansion of European culture. For this reason, the birthplace of beer is considered to be Germany. Old German language described the drink by word «bior», which is easy to recognize today’s German «bier» or English «beer».

 

The first mention of hops refers to the VIII century, but it became an essential component of beer only in the XII century. First hops adding mentioned about the year 800, during the rule of Charlemagne. Hop valued so highly in Germany, that they even state fee was paid by it. Gradually, it became the European currency, however, not fully convertible, because hop was banned for use in England to the XV century. It should to be noted that medieval sometimes been harmful to health. Hallucinogenic alkaloids, which were a part of it, could cause vision, and it served as a pretext for many superstitions. the end of the XVI century in Europe the practice of burning “beer witches” who were accused of spoiling beer, though of course it was in the imperfection of technology.

Apparently, the idea of adding hops to beer originated and implemented in monasteries. Monks were in search and also recorded the results of their experiments, preserving them for future generations. Because of hop monastic beers became better and better. There were not the protected borders in central Europe at that time, and the secrets of brewing wandering monks moved from the monastery to monastery. Eventually, the monastery officially had the right to engage in the beer production and trading, become true brewing outposts.

However, in the IX century, beer was almost forbidden for monks, but one of the Church leaders had decided to proclaim beer as a sacred drink. According to these rules, even in the most extreme poverty monastery each monk received about one liter of beer a day, without taking into account half a liter of wine. In many monasteries their happy residents can enjoy almost a triple dose of the drink per day.

Many monasteries selling beer business, including the monastery brewery Weihenstephan near Freyzinha founded in 1040 year.Weihenstephan is the oldest monastery in the world, which still existing. Only in 1803 the monastery brewery took over the secular power, combining it with the agricultural school. Today, Weihenstephan belongs to the Munich Technical University.

Beer of that time may quite possible to be compared with the present one. But it was cooked in the open air, sometimes even without the hop addition. Sometimes there was the beer with rapidly sank foam, and depending on components it was light or dark. It tastes like stale.

Commercial brewing began within XIII century on the territory of present the Czech Republic, Pilsen and Cheshskih Budejovice. Brewery Cheshskih Budejovice supplied with beer Bohemia royal court at the beginning of XVI century. The local beer received the name “Beer of Kings’. About the same time German brewers established their guilds. Beer in England (or rather its kind – English el) became the main national drink till the end of the XIV century.

In northern Germany beer production guaranteed harmless to health. In the Hanseatic cities experienced a brewing boom, and its peak in Bremen. There were about 600 breweries in Hamburg until the end of the XV century. There were beer and wine cellars at the town hall of Hamburg and Lübeck. Beer was the main export in many European countries and even the Mediterranean. German beer was popular in Russian cities Novgorod and Pskov. A huge role in the development of German beer culture performed the Bavarian law on strict compliance with beer recipes in 1516. This law called Reinheitsgebot (purity commandment), conclusively establishes that beer can be cooked only with barley (later – barley malt), hops and pure water. Fermentation process was left to chance because the yeast was unknown at that time.

The law differed with austerity – those who produced and forged the beer been strictly fined and sometimes even completely drowned in they own beer. Reinheitsgebot operates in Germany until now, being the oldest legislative act in the world, which regulates food production and protect consumer rights.

Another important point in the history of brewing was the opening of single-celled organisms responsible for fermentation by Louis Pasteur in XIX century.

In 1881, Dane Emil Christian Hansen opened up new opportunities with founding the first pure culture of yeast gives brilliantly advantage – in the modern world beer is the most popular alcoholic beverage that is unparalleled in terms of production and product range.

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